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Emikutu ku bigambo ebitandika ne:

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Ebigambo ebisukufu ebitandika ne nyukuta T

by Phil Bartle

byakyusibwa Eric Bunnet Kitsa, Irene Nakasango, Jonathan Mwesigwa S.



The word "target" is used two ways in development jargon. Both come from its orthodox meaning, as in training for warfare, shooting arrows, the "target" being a device that is set up which you shoot towards and try to hit.

One way it is used, perhaps the earlier, is as "target group," meaning the beneficiaries to which some benefit (or project output) is aimed.

The second use of "target" is as a quantitative number meaning how many (of some output) are desired.

The second derives from factories where a target number of manufactured goods are set in the plans.

Some professionals object to the word target used either way because of the military and/or materialistic implications.

 Català: objectiu,    Deutsch: Zielbereich,    Ελληνικά: στόχος,    English: target,    Español: destinatario,    Français: cible,    Português: alvo,    Srpski: meta,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 工作目标



The technological dimension of community is its capital, its tools and skills, and ways of dealing with the physical environment. It is the interface between humanity and nature. See " Community."

Some persons assume that "development" means only the increased sophistication of technology; that is only one of the six cultural dimensions that change as a community develops.



The most important two words in obtaining funds, and non monetary support, including guidance and advice, and running a successful NGO, CBO or community project, are the words, "Thank you."

Many NGO staff wondered why enthusiasm for their activities dried up, and funds, support and advice ceased to roll in; the simple cause is that they forgot to acknowledge and thank donors

 Català: gràcies,    Deutsch: Danke,    Ελληνικά: σασ ευχαριστουμε,    English: thank you,    Español: gracias,    Français: merci,    Português: agradecer, obrigado,    Srpski: Хвала / hvala,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 感谢您
  Akan: Meda'ase,     Arabic: (Shukran) شكرا,     Bulgarian: благодаря,     Català: Gràcies,     Greek: Ευχαριστώ (Efharistó),     Tagalog: Salamat po,     Hebrew: (rav todot) רב תודות (toda) תודה (toda rabah) תודה רבה,     Hindi: धन्यवाद (dhanyavād),     Indonesian: Terima kasih,     Italiano: Grazie,     Japanese: どうも (dōmo),     Kiswahili: Asante,     Korean: 감사합니다 (kamsahamnida),     Malay: Terima kasih,     Nederlands: Dank u,     Nepal: धन्यवाद (Dhanyabad),     Pashto: (Manana) مننه (Tashakor) تشكر,     Polish: Dzięki,     Punjabi: ਧਨਵਾਦ / مہربانی (tànvād), ਸ਼ੁਕਰੀਆ / شکریہ (shukrīā),     Romanian: Mersi / Mulţumesc,     Somali: Mahadsanid,     తెలుగు (Telegu): ధన్యవాదములు ! (dhanyavaadhamulu),  



The term "top down" implies decision making that originates from highly placed officials in centralised agencies, ministries or departments. The effect of mobilization and the empowerment of low income communities is supposed to be a decrease in "top down" decision making processes.

Where the decision making process is seen to be less democratic, starting from high officials or central agencies, working its way down the official channels to the common people in the communities, it is deemed to be "top down."

 Català: de dalt a baix,    Deutsch: Von oben nach unten,    Ελληνικά: πανω προσ τα κατω,    English: top down,    Español: de arriba a abajo,    Français: de sommet vers le bas,    Português: de cima pra baixo,    Srpski: od vrha na dole,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 自上而下



The word "tourist" is used in a derogatory way to describe VIP visitors from headquarters, politicians, officials from international donor agencies and others who visit the area of a project, and expect to be shown the progress of a project. In general their visits take away resources (human effort, transport, time) from ongoing operations.

Senior members of the project are expected to stop their usual work in order to act as tour guides. While any one such visitor is welcomed, it becomes a serious burden when many visitors choose to see the field.

 Català: turisme,    Ελληνικά: τουριστασ,    English: tourist,    Deutsch: Tourist,    Español: turista,    Français: touriste,    हिन्दी : पर्यटक,    Português: turista,    Srpski: turista,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 游览者



Training, as an element of strengthening community based groups, is not just the transfer of information and skills. It is training AS mobilization, not just training ABOUT mobilization.

If you want to learn something just for the sake of learning, go to a philosophy professor. We train for action.

The six purposes for community management training are:

  1. Awareness raising (there is a problem)
  2. Information imparting (there is a solution)
  3. Skill acquisition (how to solve the problem)
  4. Encouragement (do it; do not get discouraged)
  5. Organizing
  6. and, most importantly
  7. Mobilization (Bringing people together, organizing for unity, determining priorities of the whole group [not only the leaders], deciding upon action, planning and then implementing that action; in short, training as organizing for effectiveness and transparency of decision making and actions).

A mobilizer trains in order to mobilize. See Training for Action, and see Training for Mobilization.

 Català: formació per a l'acció,    Deutsch: Praxistraining,    Ελληνικά: εκπαιδευση για δραση,    English: training for action,    Français: former pour action,    Español: adiestramiento para la acción,    Português: treinamento para a ação,    Srpski: obuka za akciju,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 为行动而提供培训



To transcend is "to go beyond," and to look at something from a higher level of perspective. Whereas a tree, for example, is made up of lifeless elements, most in the form of atoms, the life of a tree, its living, goes beyond the mere composition of atoms.

The laws that govern the actions of atoms are not sufficient to describe the action of trees, as living things, as they grow. Similarly, while communities are made up of biological entities (human beings) they go beyond the natural laws that make up the biology of human beings.

The "biological" or "organic" level of nature is made up of the inorganic elements, but transcends them. That they have "life" which they would not have unless they are combined in the way they are, means that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

Similarly, the "cultural" or "superorganic" is made up of organic elements (human beings) but transcends them. The addition of "culture" or "society" similarly means that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

 Català: transcendir,    Deutsch: Transzendieren,    Ελληνικά: υπερβαινω,    English: transcend,    Español: trascender / trasciende,    Français: dépassez, transcender,    Português: transcender,    Srpski: prevazilazi,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 超越



When money is given to someone, it is merely passed on from one owner to another. No wealth is generated by this.

Some people mistakenly think that when money is given to poor people that there has been income generation. If there is no value added, there is no generation (creating) of wealth.

 Català: transferència de diners,    Deutsch: Geldtransfer,    Ελληνικά: μεταφορα χρηματων,    English: transfer of money,    Español: Transferencia de dinero,    Français: transfert d'argent,    Português: transferencia de dinheiro,    Srpski: prenos para,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 金钱转移



Transparency is a very important element of strengthening a community (see elements of empowerment). The word "transparent" here means the ability to see through something.

When civil servants try to do things (ie make decisions, allocate resources) in secrecy, hiding their activities from the people, they are not being transparent. They are giving the people the "mushroom treatment."

This promotes mistrust, apathy, and marginalization (important factors of poverty and community weakness). Your job as a mobilizer is to promote transparency. You do it by explaining what it is, and that the people have a right and a responsibility to know what is going on (awareness raising).

You also do it by ensuring that it is a key element of the community organizations that you form or re-organize. Laws, such as the "Freedom of Information Act," or similar laws which ensure that details of government spending must be of public record, available to the people, are intended to promote governmental transparency, although some officials will attempt to subvert the spirit of such laws.

If you hide a problem, cover it up or deny that it is there; you surely hinder its solution.

If, instead, you uncover it, admit it, and honestly examine it, you are well on the way to solving the problem. Transparency strengthens.

 العربيّة (Arabic): الشفافية,    Bahasa Indonesia: transparansi,    Català: transparència,    Deutsch: die transparenz,    Ελληνικά: Διαφάνεια,    English: transparency,    Español: transparencia,    Filipino: naaaninag o pagiging bukas,    Français: transparence,    Galego: transparencia,    हिन्दी: पारदर्शीता,    Italiano: transparenza,    日本語: 透明 明確さ,    한국어 / Hangugeo: 투명도,    Malay: transparensi,    Nederlands: transparantie,    Português: transparência,    Română: transparenta,    Pyccкий:Прозрачность,    Somali: waadix,    Srpski: providnost,    ไทย: ความโปร่งใส,    Türkçe: şeffaflık,    Tiên Việt: tính minh bạch,    ردو: شفافیت,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 透明度



Trust is one of the sixteen elements of strength, power or capacity of a community or organization. See: Elements of Community Strength. It is the degree to which members of the community trust each other, especially their leaders and community servants, which in turn is a reflection of the degree of integrity (honesty, dependability, openness, transparency, trustworthiness) within the community.

More trust and dependability within a community reflects its increased capacity. (Dishonesty, corruption, embezzlement and diversion of community resources all contribute to community or organizational weakness). When stimulating a community to organize and act, the mobilizer needs to be aware of the role of trust in empowering that community or organization.

 Català: confiança,    Deutsch: Vertrauen,    Ελληνικά: εμπιστοσυνη,    English: trust,    Español: confianza mutua,    Français: confiance mutuelle,    Português: confiança,    Srpski: poverenje,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 信任



Two bulls came over a hill and spotted a hundred cows in the valley. "Oh, Uncle." said the young bull. "Let us run down and do a few."  "No." said the old bull, "Let us walk down and do them all."

This story, from Northern Ghana, is good to tell at community meetings. It is a way to teach the lesson that we should not be in a hurry, but take time and do things right.

See Stories and Proverbs.

 Català: dos bous,    Deutsch: Zwei Bullen,    Ελληνικά: δυο ταυροι,    English: two bulls,    Español: Dos Toros,    Português: dois touros,    Srpski: dva bika,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 两只公牛

Bw’osaanga ekigambo ekyetaaga okukubaganyaako ebirowoozo, tukusaba . owandiike.
Bw’okoppa ebiwandiikiddwa ku mukutu guno, tukusaba okujjuliza omuwandiisi oba abawandiisi
era obiyuunge ku www.cec.vcn.bc.ca
"Omutimbagano guno guvunaanyizibwa aba Vancouver Community Network " (VCN)

© Obwanannyini 1967, 1987, 2007 Phil Bartle
Endabika y’Omutimbagano ekoleddwaako Lourdes Sada
Okukyusaamu okukyasembyeeyo: 2014.12.06

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