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by Phil Bartle



The word, "democracy," comes from ancient classic languages, where "demo" means the people (as in demography) and "cracy" means power (as in bureaucracy or aristocracy).

The word democracy, then, means power to the people. Ironically, ancient Greece was not very democratic in that the economy was based upon the labour of slaves.

There are different kinds of democracy: eg representational democracy where the people elect representatives (eg Members of Parliament) to make decisions for them, and participatory democracy where the people are involved in making decisions.

As a mobilizer, you are urged to promote democracy, ie in the community project, but you are not obligated to imitate the British parliamentary system. Look for what is socially appropriate.

العربيّة: الديمقراطية,    Bahasa Indonesia: demokrasi,    Català democràcia,    Deutsch: demokratie,    Ελληνικά: Δημοκρατία,    English: democracy,    Español: democracia,    Ewe: worwor,    Filipino/Tagalog: demokrasya,    Français: démocratie,    Galego: democracia,    हिन्दी (Hindi): लोकतन्त्र,    Italiano: democrazia,    日本語: 民主主義,    한국어 / Hangugeo: 민주주의,    Malay: demokrasi,    Nederlands: democratie,    Português: democracia,    Română: democratie,    Pyccкий: Демократия,    Srpski: demokratija,    ไทย : ประชาธิปไตย,    Tiên Việt: dân chủ,    Türkçe: demokrasi,    ردو (Urdu): جمہوریت,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 民主



The dependency syndrome is an attitude and belief that a group can not solve its own problems without outside help.

It is a weakness that is made worse by charity. See: The Dependency Syndrome. in the project design module.

العربيّة: التبعي,    Bahasa Indonesia: dependensi,    Català: dependència,    Deutsch: Abhängigkeit,    Ελληνικά: Εξάρτησης,    English: dependency syndrome,    Español: síndrome de dependencia,    Euskera: mendekotasuna,    Ewe: nudzodzro,    Filipino/Tagalog: pagtatangkilik,    Français: syndrome de dépendance,    Galego: dependencia,    Italiano: dipendenza,    日本語: 依存,    한국어 / Hangugeo: 의존(증후군),    Malay: kebergantungan,    Nederlands: afhankelijkheid,    Português: dependencia,    Română: dependenta,    Pyccкий: Зависимость,    Somali: ku tiirsanaanta,    Srpski: zavisnost,    ไทย : ความต้องการพึ่งพิง,    Tiên Việt: phụ thuộc,    Türkçe: bağımlılık,    ردو (Urdu): محتاجی کی لت,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 依赖性



Of all the ways of learning (reading, listening, watching), the most effective way of learning for most people is usually by "doing." See: Training Methods.

Learning by doing can include doing directly such as doing a task in the field under supervision by a trainer, or doing indirectly such as participating in a role playing session or simulation game.

العربيّة: القيام بالأمر,    Bahasa Indonesia: bekerja,    Deutsch: handeln,    Ελληνικά: Πράξη,    English: doing,    Español: practicar,    Ewe: worwor,    Filipino/Tagalog: paggawa,    Français: faire,    Galego: facer,    हिन्दी (Hindi): लोकतन्त्र,    Italiano: fare,    日本語: 実技,    한국어 / Hangugeo: 행동,    Malay: membuat,    Nederlands: doen,    Português: agir, fazendo,    Română: a practica,    Pyccкий: Действие,    Srpski: radjenje,    ไทย : การลงมือทำ,    Tiên Việt: làm,    Türkçe: yapma,    اردو (Urdu): عمل,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 实践



Monitoring is the regular observation, recording, analysing and reporting of activities and the results of those activities, in a project or similar activity. (See: Monitoring and evaluation.)

العربيّة: الرصد,    Bahasa Indonesia: pengawasan,    Deutsch: monitoring,    Ελληνικά: επίβλεψη,    English: monitoring,    Español: supervisar,    Ewe: dzikpurkpor,    Filipino/Tagalog: pagsubaybay,    Français: surveillance,    Galego: supervisión,    日本語: 監視,    한국어 / Hangugeo: 모니터링,    Malay: memantau,    Nederlands: monitoren,    Română: monitorizarea,    Português: monitoragem,    Pyccкий: мониторинг,    Srpski: učesnička procena,    ไทย : การเฝ้าดู,    Tiên Việt: giám sát,    Türkçe: gözlemleme,    ردو: نگرانی,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 监察



Before a project is planned, the situation must be assessed or appraised. See: PAR or PRA.

For a project to be "community-based," the whole community must participate in observing and analysing, looking for problems, potentials, resources and constraints.

A community and its members do not participate in its own assessment automatically. A decree, law, project design phrase or statement of intent will not ensure that the whole community participates.

Community members need encouragement, skills, stimulation and guidance in order to participate in appraisal or assessment. Among the various tasks of the community worker, mobilizer or facilitator, providing those are among the most important.

Providing that stimulation and training is variously called by the acronyms, PRA or PAR.



Planning means thinking about and working out what to do in the future. A good plan has a series of steps leading from the current situation up to the desired end. See Work Plan.

One effective method is "reverse time thinking," where you start with what you want to achieve in the end, and look at the immediately prior step to that, then the one before that, and so on until you get to the present situation.

العربيّة: التخطيط,    Bahasa Indonesia: perencanaan,    Deutsch: Planung,    Ελληνικά: σχεδιασμός,    English: planning,    Español: planificación,    Ewe: susuworwor,    Filipino/Tagalog: pagpaplano,    Français: planification,    Galego: planificación,    Italiano: planning,    日本語: 計画,    한국어 / Hangugeo: 계획,    Malay: merancang,    Nederlands: plannen,    Português: planificar,    Română: planificarea,    Pyccкий: планирование,    Srpski: planiranje,    ไทย : การวางแผน,    Tiên Việt: lập kế hoạch,    Türkçe: planlama,    ردو: منصوبہ بندى,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 规划,



A "situation analysis" is a procedure during which the overall characteristics and priority problems of a community are identified. See PAR.

Your job as a mobilizer is to ensure that all, or as many community members as possible, participate in the observation and analysis of the community situation.

العربيّة: تحليل الوض,    Bahasa Indonesia: analisa situasi,    Deutsch: Situationsanalyse,    Ελληνικά: Ανάλυση της Κατάστασης,    English: situation analysis,    Español: análisis de la situación,    Ewe: nornormer dadakpor,    Filipino/Tagalog: pagsusuri ng sitwasyon,    Français: analyse de situation,    Galego: análise da situación,    日本語: 状況分析,    한국어 / Hangugeo: 상황 분석,    Malay: analisis situasi,    Nederlands: situatie-analyse,    Português: análise de situação,    Română: analiza a situatiei,    Pyccкий: Анализ ситуации,    Srpski: analiza okolnosti,    ไทย : การวิเคราะห์สถานะการณ์,    Tiên Việt: phân tích tình huống,    Türkçe: durum analizi,  اردو: صورتحال کا تجزی,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 分析情况,



Transparency is a very important element of strengthening a community (see elements of empowerment). The word "transparent" here means the ability to see through something.

When civil servants try to do things (ie make decisions, allocate resources) in secrecy, hiding their activities from the people, they are not being transparent. They are giving the people the "mushroom treatment."

This promotes mistrust, apathy, and marginalization (important factors of poverty and community weakness). Your job as a mobilizer is to promote transparency. You do it by explaining what it is, and that the people have a right and a responsibility to know what is going on (awareness raising).

You also do it by ensuring that it is a key element of the community organizations that you form or re-organize. Laws, such as the "Freedom of Information Act," or similar laws which ensure that details of government spending must be of public record, available to the people, are intended to promote governmental transparency, although some officials will attempt to subvert the spirit of such laws.

If you hide a problem, cover it up or deny that it is there; you surely hinder its solution.

If, instead, you uncover it, admit it, and honestly examine it, you are well on the way to solving the problem. Transparency strengthens.

العربيّة (Arabic): الشفافية,    Bahasa Indonesia: transparansi,    Deutsch: die transparenz,    Ελληνικά: Διαφάνεια,    English: transparency,    Español: transparencia,    Ewe: korkoenyernyer,    Filipino/Tagalog: naaaninag o pagiging bukas,    Français: transparence,    Galego: transparencia,    हिन्दी : पारदर्शीता ,   Italiano: transparenza,    日本語: 透明 明確さ,    한국어 / Hangugeo: 투명도,    Malay: transparensi,    Nederlands: transparantie,    Português: transparência,    Română: transparenta,    Pyccкий:Прозрачность,    Somali: waadix,    Srpski: providnost,    ไทย : ความโปร่งใส,    Tiên Việt: tính minh bạch,    Türkçe: şeffaflık,    ردو: شفافیت,    中文 (Zhōngwén): 透明度,

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